大型工程建设规划的生态水文响应模拟—以天府国际机场建设为例
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Eco-hydrological response simulation of large-scale project construction plan:a case study of Tianfu International Airport construction
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    摘要:

    大型工程的生态环境保护日益受到重视,制定有效的生态规划是保护的关键,而工程扰动复杂、理论基础薄弱和缺乏方法论是规划设计的难点.本文以天府国际机场为例,尝试引入流域分布式水文模型(SWAT模型),探索机场建设和保护对举人河流域生态水文的影响,为工程项目保护规划的制定提供依据和评价支撑.模型校准结果显示,率定期的R2和NS值分别为0.81、0.71,验证期的R2和NS值分别为0.70、0.53,模型对流域径流模拟效果较好.结合机场建设工程和生态补偿规划,设置了“建设破坏”和“下游修复”情景,模拟结果表明,机场“建设破坏”使流域地表径流至少增加10%、植物根部入渗量减少20%以上、实际蒸发值增加,河川径流和产水量减少,建设破坏效果明显;流域“下游修复”使地表径流、产水量和河川径流大幅减少,下游修复措施是有效的.研究方法及结果为大型工程项目的建设规划提供了新思路及客观的依据,对项目生态保护方案优化和生态补偿策略制定具有一定的借鉴意义.

    Abstract:

    Abstract: The ecological environment protection of large-scale projects has been paid more and more attention to. However, engineering disturbance, lack of methodology and theory are the difficulties of making effective construction plans. In this research, we applied the distributed hydrological model (SWAT model) to explore the influence of Tianfu International airport construction to ecological hydrology of Juren River, which was partially occupied by the airport. The result showed that the R2 and NS were 0.81 and 0.71 in model calibration, 0.70 and 0.53 in model validation respectively, so the runoff simulation was reliable. Considering the airport construction and ecological compensation plans, two scenarios including "construction damage" and "downstream restoration" were set up. In "construction damage" scenario, the surface runoff increased by at least 10%, root infiltration increased by more than 20%, the actual evaporation value increased too, meanwhile the runoff and water production decreased, the results showed a significant construction damage effect. Surface runoff, water production and river runoff reduced significantly in "downstream restoration" scenario, so the ecological restoration is effective. This research provides a new idea and an objective basis for the construction plan of large-scale projects, which has certain instructive meaning to propose project ecological protection plans and ecological compensation strategies.

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引用本文格式: 宋长明,颉文怡,张馨月,阚 韬,辜 彬. 大型工程建设规划的生态水文响应模拟—以天府国际机场建设为例[J]. 四川大学学报: 自然科学版, 2018, 55: 387.

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  • 收稿日期:2017-03-21
  • 最后修改日期:2017-05-13
  • 录用日期:2017-05-16
  • 在线发布日期: 2018-03-18
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