油用与食用向日葵籽形态及主成分差异辨析
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Discriminatory Analysis on the Morphology and Major Components of Kernels of the Edible and Oil-type Sunflowers
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    摘要:

    以食用和油用型向日葵种子各20种为材料,比较分析了两者在籽实和籽仁的大小、籽仁蛋白质含量、油脂含量、脂肪酸组成和相对含量、以及碳水化合物含量的差异。结果表明:食用型向日葵籽实和籽仁均较大(长短径籽实:1.75:0.79cm;籽仁:1.18:0.54cm),种皮多为灰底白纹;油用型籽实和籽仁均较小(长短径籽实:1.04:0.52cm;籽仁:0.88:0.45cm),籽实饱满充实,种皮多为黑色;食用向日葵籽仁蛋白平均含量约为19%,油用向日葵籽仁蛋白平均含量约为15%,食用型向日葵籽仁蛋白含量大都高于油用型;食用向日葵籽仁含油量介于30.03%-42.37%之间,油用向日葵含油量介于30%-47.24%之间;向日葵籽油的主要成分为棕榈酸、硬脂酸、油酸和亚油酸; 其中油酸和亚油酸的相对含量较高,共约占90%,70%食用葵花籽亚油酸含量丰富,达到60%以上,58%油用葵花籽中油酸含量较高,达到80%以上;食用向日葵籽仁淀粉含量14%左右,油用向日葵籽仁淀粉含量13%左右。食用和油用型向日葵籽虽在主成分上有一些差异,但没有严格的界限,其划分主要还是依据于其种皮形态、籽粒大小以及嗑食方便的特点进行的。

    Abstract:

    Edible and oil types sunflower seeds each 20 kinds of was used as materials, a comparative analysis of the difference in seed and kernel size, kernel protein content, fat content, fatty acid composition and relative content, and carbohydrate content. The results showed that: edible sunflower seeds and kernel are large (length of path seeds: 1.75: 0.79cm; seed kernel: 1.18: 0.54cm), testa mostly duplex white pattern; oil seeds and kernel are Small (length diameter seeds: 1.04: 0.52cm; seed kernel: 0.88: 0.45cm), full enrichment seed, the seed coat is black; The average edible content of sunflower seed kernel protein about 19%,, the average oil content of sunflower seed kernel protein about 15%, edible sunflower seed kernel protein content higher than most oil-use; edible sunflower seed kernel oil content ranged from 30.03 percent to 42.37 percent, oil sunflower seed kernel oil content between 30% percent with 47.24% percent; the main component of sunflower seed oil, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid; oleic and linoleic acid relative higher levels, a total of about 90%, 70% edible sunflower seeds rich in linoleic acid content of more than 60%, 58% higher oleic sunflower oil content of more than 80%; edible sunflower seed kernel starch content of about 14%, oil sunflower seed kernel starch content of about 13%. Edible and oil types sunflower seeds, although there are some differences on the main ingredient, but there is no strict boundaries, divided mainly on the basis of its seed coat shape, grain size and nibbling food and convenient features performed.

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引用本文格式: 李培江,李碧娟,南伟,米瑶,廖芳,李关荣. 油用与食用向日葵籽形态及主成分差异辨析[J]. 四川大学学报: 自然科学版, 2017, 54: 203.

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  • 收稿日期:2015-09-09
  • 最后修改日期:2016-02-27
  • 录用日期:2016-04-07
  • 在线发布日期: 2017-01-21
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